Peru is a country of abundant natural resources and rich culture. Despite this, over half of the population live in poverty. Social discrimination and inequality are widespread. More information on the key challenges for Peru are outlined below.

  • Historical Overview

    Over the past century Peru has suffered a series of autocratic governments and a civil war in which nearly 70,000 people died. Many of the country's ongoing political and social problems are a legacy of its somewhat turbulent past. 


  • Human Rights

    Human rights violations were widespread during the twenty years after the initiation of armed conflict in 1980. Efforts to convict perpetrators since the war's end have made only limited progress. Today, concerns remain over the treatment of those engaged in social protest, particularly against strategically important investment projects.


  • Society and Conflict

    Peru’s indigenous and peasant communities continue to suffer political marginalisation and discrimination. Insufficient consultation with such groups over political and developmental decisions has fostered feelings of disenfranchisement and led to elevated levels of social conflict.


  • Women

    Women have traditionally suffered disproportionately from the country's pervasive poverty and unemployment, partly as a result of persistent discrimination. Domestic violence remains a serious concern and was reported by the World Health Organisation in 2005 to affect over 50 percent of Peruvian women.


  • Climate Change

    Two important reports on the impacts of climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC ) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and the Stern Review, place Peru as one of the countries that will be most affected by the effects of climate change.


  • PSG MineWatch

    There are numerous social conflicts related to extractive concessions operated by British firms in Peru. This PSG database shows which firms and which projects have proved the most contentious this month.


    • Quick Facts

      • Full name:
        Republic of Peru
      • Population:
        28.2 million (UN, 2008)
      • Capital:
      • Area:
        1.28 million sq km
        (496,225 sq miles)
      • Major languages:
        Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
      • Major religion:
      • Life expectancy:
        69 years (men),
        74 years (women) (UN)
      • Monetary unit:
        1 nuevo sol = 100 centimos